Based on a synthesis of classroom SLA research that has helped to shape evolving perspectives of content-based instruction since the introduction of immersion programs in Montreal more than 40 years ago, this book presents an updated perspective on integrating language and content in ways that engage second language learners with language across the curriculum. A range of instructional practices observed in immersion and content-based classrooms is highlighted to set the stage for justifying a counterbalanced approach that integrates both content-based and form-focused instructional options as complementary ways of intervening to develop a learner’s interlanguage system. A counterbalanced approach is outlined as an array of opportunities for learners to process language through content by means of comprehension, awareness, and production mechanisms, and to negotiate language through content by means of interactional strategies involving teacher scaffolding and feedback.
Whether we grow up with one, two, or several languages during our early years of life, many of us will learn a second, foreign, or heritage language in later years. The field of Second language acquisition (SLA, for short) investigates the human capacity to learn additional languages in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, after the first language --in the case of monolinguals-- or languages --in the case of bilinguals-- have already been acquired. Understanding Second Language Acquisition offers a wide-encompassing survey of this burgeoning field, its accumulated findings and proposed theories, its developed research paradigms, and its pending questions for the future. The book zooms in and out of universal, individual, and social forces, in each case evaluating the research findings that have been generated across diverse naturalistic and formal contexts for second language acquisition. It assumes no background in SLA and provides helpful chapter-by-chapter summaries and suggestions for further reading.
"Learner Autonomy" offers practical guidance on helping learners realise that their contribution to the teaching-learning process is crucial. It also encourages them to take an active role in their own learning. Rather than advocating radical changes in Classroom Management, it focuses on the gradual process of changing learner attitudes. The activities are designed to develop a comprehensive range of skills and attitudes including motivation, learning strategies, self-monitoring and co-operation. The activities can be easily integrated into the regular curriculum as almost all serve some linguistic purpose in addition to learner development.
This volume examines the area of second language vocabulary studies from three broad perspectives: description, acquisition and pedagogical context. The book's fifteen chapters are grouped together to achieve a balance between descriptions of what vocabulary is and how it behaves, how the mind learns new vocabulary and then uses it when it is learned, and pedagogical issues of teaching and testing L2 vocabulary. Some of the specific topics addressed in these three general areas include: - word frequency and vocabulary size, multi-word units, variation between spoken and written language; - models of lexical acquisition, first language influences on second language vocabulary acquisition, vocabulary learning strategies; - vocabulary and the syllabus, trends in teaching and testing vocabulary, lexical reference sources.
Using film and video in the classroom is motivating and fun but can be daunting for the teacher. This book guides and supports teachers with plenty of practical suggestions for activities which can be used with drama, soap opera, comedy, sports programmes and documentaries. Many of the activities will lend themselves for use with DVD and webcasts.
Stories are a wonderful way of helping students learn and acquire language. This book is for teachers who want to use stories in class but need a place to start. Stories is packed full of fun activities using different genres: soap opera, urban myth and newspaper reporting as well as advice on using stories in the classroom.
Psychology for Language Teachers examines the field of educational psychology and considers various ways in which a deeper understanding of this discipline can help language teachers. The first part presents an overview of educational psychology, and discusses how different approaches to psychology have influenced language teaching methodology. Following this, four themes are identified: the learner, the teacher, the task and the learning context. Recent psychological developments in each of these domains are discussed and implications are drawn for language teaching. Areas considered include approaches to learning, motivation, the role of the individual, attribution, mediation, the teaching of thinking, the cognitive demands of tasks and the learning environment. Psychology for Language Teachers does not assume previous knowledge of psychology.
This is the second edition of the one of the founding titles of the CHLT series. The book features many of the original games but has also been fully revised to include new games for the ELT classroom. The structure of the book has also been revised so that the games are now grouped in a more teacher-friendly format where teachers can search based on language and skill criteria rather than just game type.
The Natural Approach is based on the following tenets: 1). Language acquisition (an unconscious process developed through using language meaningfully) is different from language learning (consciously learning or discovering rules about a language) and language acquisition is the only way competence in a second language occurs. (The acquisition/learning hypothesis) 2). Conscious learning operates only as a monitor or editor that checks or repairs the output of what has been acquired. (The monitor hypothesis) 3). Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order and it does little good to try to learn them in another order.(The natural order hypothesis). 4). People acquire language best from messages that are just slightly beyond their current competence. (The input hypothesis) 5). The learner's emotional state can act as a filter that impedes or blocks input necessary to acquisition. (The affective filter hypothesis).
Specifically targeted towards the needs of a second language research audience, Second Language Research: Methodology and Design addresses basic issues related to research design, providing step-by-step instructions for how to carry out studies. This up-to-date text includes chapters that cover identifying research problems and questions; selecting elicitation measures; dealing with ethical issues related to data gathering; validity and reliability in research; research in second and foreign language classroom contexts; data description and coding; and data analysis. Also included is a chapter on the much needed and rarely addressed topic of writing up SLA research, giving concrete suggestions about preparing for publication. Principles of both qualitative and quantitative research are discussed in the context of design issues. Throughout the book, examples from applied linguistics, second language acquisition, and TESOL are provided. Helpful discussion and data-based skill-building exercises at the end of each chapter promote better understanding of the principles discussed. A glossary outlines the key terms in second language research. Second Language Research: Methodology and Design is an ideal textbook for introductory and advanced classes in second language research methods, as well as classes in related areas, for example, TESOL research methods.
"Psychology for Language Teachers" examines the field of educational psychology and considers various ways in which a deeper understanding of this discipline can help language teachers. The first part presents an overview of educational psychology, and discusses how different approaches to psychology have influenced language teaching methodology. Following this, four themes are identified: the learner, the teacher, the task and the learning context. Recent psychological developments in each of these domains are discussed and implications are drawn for language teaching. Areas considered include approaches to learning, motivation, the role of the individual, attribution, mediation, the teaching of thinking, the cognitive demands of tasks and the learning environment. Psychology for Language Teachers does not assume previous knowledge of psychology.
In one form or another, slavery has existed throughout the world for millennia. It helped to change the world, and the world transformed the institution. In the 1450s, when Europeans from the small corner of the globe least enmeshed in the institution first interacted with peoples of other continents, they created, in the Americas, the most dynamic, productive, and exploitative system of coerced labor in human history. Three centuries later these same intercontinental actions produced a movement that successfully challenged the institution at the peak of its dynamism. Within another century a new surge of European expansion constructed Old World empires under the banner of antislavery. However, twentieth-century Europe itself was inundated by a new system of slavery, larger and more deadly than its earlier system of New World slavery. This book examines these dramatic expansions and contractions of the institution of slavery and the impact of violence, economics, and civil society in the ebb and flow of slavery and antislavery during the last five centuries.
Published in 1959, Stanley Elkins' "Slavery" opened up new avenues of debate in the historiography of American slavery. Though a generation of historians would later prove him wrong, Elkins argued that there was little uncharted ground left to explore in our knowledge of slaves' material conditions, and that the debate should shift to consideration of the psychological effects of bondage upon slaves. Regarding the role of whites in the institution, Elkins cared less about their economic motivations than their philosophical views, arguing that the lack of a true intellectual class or established institutions exerting moral authority prevented the United States from settling the slavery debate in a peaceful manner.
A Civilised savagery recounts the history of human rights protests in the context of European imperialism, illustrating the historical bridge between the Victorian era of empire and abolition and the twentieth - century era of humanitarian politics and humam rights.
Slang is the language through which we communicate on an everyday basis. Often more colorful and expressive than its formal counterpart, slang is stimulated largely by "sex, money and intoxicating liquor" and, more recently, drugs, and is ever changing and evolving. This lively introduction to the world of slang provides:
Aphra Behn's novel "Oroonoko" (1688) is one of the most widely studied works of seventeenth-century literature, because of its powerful representation of slavery and complex portrayal of ways in which differing races and cultures - European, Black African, and Native American - observe and misinterpret each other. This edition presents a new edition of Oroonoko, with unprecedentedly full and informative commentary, along with complete texts of three major British seventeenth-century works concerned with race and colonialism: Henry Neville's The Isle of Pines (1668), Behn's Abdelazer (1676), and Thomas Southerne's tragedy Oroonoko (1696). It combines these with a rich anthology of European discussions of slavery, racial difference, and colonial conquest from the mid-sixteenth century to the time of Behn's death. Many are taken from important works that have not hitherto been easily available, and the collection offers an unrivaled resource for studying the culture that produced Britain's first major fictions of slavery.
The Englishmen in Jamestown who greeted the first "twenty Negars" who arrived in 1619 had already acquired an attitude toward the Negro–from tradition, from religion, from earlier European contacts with Africans. And as the Englishman became the colonial, and then the revolutionary patriot, and finally the citizen of a new nation, seeking to find his identity in a new land, he created chattel slavery and was in turn confronted by it.
In the troubled years following the Civil War, the spirit of a murdered child haunts the Ohio home of a former slave. This angry, destructive ghost breaks mirrors, leaves its fingerprints in cake icing, and generally makes life difficult for Sethe and her family; nevertheless, the woman finds the haunting oddly comforting for the spirit is that of her own dead baby, never named, thought of only as Beloved.